AB-6 types of misinformation circulated this election season

By March 26, 2018comp-5005, Data science
Annotated bibliography

6 types of misinformation circulated this election season

Claire Wardle (18 November 2016)

Paper’s reference in the IEEE style?

“6 types of misinformation circulated this election season,” Columbia Journalism Review. [Online]. Available: https://www.cjr.org/tow_center/6_types_election_fake_news.php. [Accessed: 26-Mar-2018].

How did you find the paper?

Referenced from a summary blog site which was found by searching for ‘fake news’:


If applicable, write a list of the search terms you used.

  1. NA

Was the paper peer reviewed? Explain how you found out.

This is an article from the Columbia Jounrnalism review

Does the author(s) work in a university or a government-funded research institute? If so, which university or research institute? If not, where do they work?


What does this tell you about their expertise? Are they an expert in the topic area?


What was the paper about?

The paper summarises, and provides examples of, six different types of fake news:

  1. Authentic material used in the wrong context

The image below was Donald Trump’s first campaign ad, reportedly showing illegal mexican immigration.  It is in fact the crossing from Morocco to Melilla.


2. Imposter news sites, designed to look like those we trust


The link in the tweet is to abcnews.com.co

The New York Times and Daily Mail have also recently been copied.

3. Fake news sites

Fake news sites, such as those from Macedonia  generte a lot of traffic .

This image was from WTOE 5 News, which describes itself as a “fantasy news site”.

4, Fake information

Memes, such as that below, can be convincing and widely shared.  This meme attempted to get people to sty home and vote on their phones.


5. Manipulated content

The ICE agent and the man were photoshopped into the image, which could be identified from a simple reverse image search.

6. Parody content



Proposed solutions:

  • social media platforms to include prominent features for filtering and flagging.
  • work with journalists and social psychologists to invest a new visual grammar so that when content is fact-checked, debunked, corrected, or verified, it is obvious to users. (e.g. watermarks).  This would be similar to emil spam filtering which, while not perfect, works most of the time.

If applicable, is this paper similar to other papers you have read for this assignment? If so, which papers and why?


If applicable, is this paper different to other papers you have read for this assignment? If so, which papers and why?


What do these similarities and differences suggest? What are your observations? Do you have any new ideas? Do you have any conclusions?

[100-200 words]

This question is to be answered after your critical analysis is completed: Which sections (if any) of your critical analysis was this paper cited in?